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共相是人们心中的有意义的概念
录入: 哲学网编辑部 发表时间: 2012-06-04 点击: 1437 次 我要收藏

中世纪早期法国著名哲学家和僧侣阿伯拉尔提出的关于共相与个别关系的命题。阿伯拉尔批判了实在论者关于共相先于个别事物而独立存在的观点,但他也不赞成罗瑟林的极端唯名论,他认为共相或一般不是空洞的记号或名称,而是有意义、有内容的概念。由此,他的观点被成为温和的唯名论或“概念论”。在《对鲍爱修斯的注释》一书中,他认为人类理智能形成关于个别事物的概念,如“苏格拉底”和“柏拉图”,这些特殊观念是从对个别事物的知觉中得来的。人心同样也是有形成这些特殊事物的相似性方面的能力,这些相似性便是有意义的一般观念的基础。因此,阿伯拉尔认为共相以两种形式存在:第一种是表示一类客观对象中相似的性质,是从许多个别事物中抽象出来的概念,粗乃与人类的理智之后总;第二种是这种相似性在任何个别事物中都完全个别化了,它们与个别事物是完全同一的,因此,实际上不能说它们是共相。客观存在的只有个别,没有共相。这个名义标志着人类已经试图从概念形成的途径上来解决共相与个别的关系,提出共相是思维把许多个别的相似性抽象出来从而形成心灵中的概念,具有唯物主义倾向。

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