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郑杰文:论战国墨家学派发展的四个阶段
录入: 哲学网编辑部 发表时间: 2014-01-27 点击: 1558 次 我要收藏

英文标题:On the Four Stages of the Development of the Mohist School in the Warring States Period
郑杰文,山东大学 文史哲研究院,山东 济南 250100
郑杰文(1951-),山东淄博市人,山东大学文史哲研究院教授、博士生导师。
内容提要:依据墨家学说主旨、队伍组织、从事工作,特别是社会作用的不同,可将战国时期墨家学派的发展分为兴盛(公元前444年至公元前381年)、衰败(公元前381年至公元前311年)、转型(公元前311年至公元前250年)、重兴(公元前250年至公元前221年)四个阶段。兴盛阶段,墨家着力游说诸侯、传播学说、制止攻战、助弱国守城;衰败阶段,墨家学派分化内斗,三派弟子活动转型;转型阶段,“谈辩派”后学热衷于空言思辨,“说书派”后学被视为与儒家同类,“从事派”后学对“任侠之风”产生重大影响;重兴阶段,墨家学派声势复盛,“说书派”后学的宣传,“从事派”后学对墨家精神的继承,“谈辩派”后学与儒家、法家的尖锐争辩,都产生了重大社会影响。
According to the purports, organizations, occupations, and particularly the social functions, the development of the Mohist School during the Warring States period (475-221 BCE) can be divided into four stages of thriving (444-381 BCE), declining (381-331 BCE), transformation (311-250 BCE), and restoration (250-221 BCE). During the period of its thriving, the Mohist School made efforts to lobby the feudal princes, distributing doctrines, preventing combats, and helping weak states defend cities; in the second stage, the school began to separate into three sects and began to struggle internally, leading to the transformation of the actions of its disciples; in the third stage, the Sect of Debating was in favor of hollow words and speculation, the Sect of Discoursing seemed to be similar to confucianists, and the Sect of Self-nerving exerted great influence upon chivalrous ethos; in the tage of restoration, the school revived, the Discoursing Sect's dissemination of doctrines, the Self-nerving Sect's inheriting of the Mohist spirit, and the Debating Sect's sharp debates with Confucian and Legalist schools exerted in-depth influence upon the society of the day.
关 键 词:战国墨家/发展四阶段/社会影响Mohist School in the Warring States period/four stages of the development/social influence

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