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“本体论”源流考(近代、现代部分)
录入: 哲学网编辑部 发表时间: 2014-02-18 点击: 1939 次 我要收藏

[内容摘要] 本文是研究"本体论"在近、现代西方哲学中的流变的专题论文。主要考察了经验论和唯理论哲学中的"实体"概念及其内在矛盾,休谟和康德对"本体论"的诘难,黑格尔哲学的"本体论"性质,以及"本体论"在现代西方哲学中的遭遇。论文认为,通常所谓近代西方哲学中的"认识论转向"(epistemological turn),并不意味着作为最古老和最基础的哲学分支--存在论的消失;实际上,在近代哲学中,按照本体论的方式去探讨存在论问题的取向,特别是继续把它作为一种哲学观念和哲学型态来看待的局面,在很长一段时间里并未根本改变。与之相反,现当代西方哲学中引人注目的所谓"本体论复兴",如果从其本来的意义上去看,与其说是传统本体论哲学型态的重新"恢复",毋宁说是对它的彻底变更。

Abstract: The thesis examines the changes of ontology in western philosophy from modern
times to contemporary age, mainly discusses the concept of "substance" in empiricism and rationalism, and their contradictions, the criticism of "ontology" in David Hume"s and Immanuel Kant"s philosophy, the essence of Hegel"s philosophy, and the destiny of "ontology" in modern western philosophy. The author considers that "epistemological turn" in modern western philosophy does not mean the end of ontology which is regarded as the oldest and essential branch of philosophy; In fact, the orientation that is used to approach ontology according to the method of ousiology, especially the situation that is regarded as a philosophical view and a philosophical morphology does not utterly change in a long period. On the contrary, the spectacular "ontological revival" in contemporary western philosophy, is better regarded as utter transformation than as a afresh "resume" of traditional "ontology" as a morphology of philosophy.

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